Chapter 1: The Meaning of Samadhi
In the rosebush there are beautiful flowers, but thorns also. A man of kutarka will count the thorns, and then he will come to an understanding that this rose must be illusory; it cannot exist. Amidst so many thorns, millions of thorns, how can a rose exist? It is impossible; the very possibility is denied. Somebody is deceiving.
Mulla Nasruddin was very, very sad. He went to the priest and said, “What to do? My crop is destroyed again - no rains.”
The priest said, “Don’t be so sad, Nasruddin. Look at the lighter side of life. You can be happy because still you have much. And always believe in God who is the provider. He even provides for birds of the air, so why are you worried?”
Nasruddin said, “Yes!” very bitterly. “Off my corn! God provides for the birds of the air off my corn.”
He cannot see the point. His crop is destroyed by these birds, and God is providing for them.“and my crop is destroyed.” This type of mind will always find something or other, and he will be always tense. Anxiety will follow him like a shadow. This Patanjali calls kutarka - negative logic, negative reasoning.
Then there is tarka - simple reasoning. Simple reasoning leads nowhere. It is moving in a circle because it has no goal. You can go on reasoning and reasoning and reasoning, but you will not come to any conclusion, because reasoning can come to a conclusion only when there is a goal from the very beginning. You are moving in a direction, then you reach somewhere. If you move in all directions - sometimes to the south, sometimes to the east, sometimes to the west - you waste energy.
Reasoning without a goal is called tarka, reasoning with a negative attitude is called kutarka, reasoning with a positive grounding is called vitarka. Vitarka means special reasoning. So vitarka is the first element of sampragyata samadhi. A man who wants to attain to the inner peace has to be trained into vitarka - special reasoning. He always looks to the lighter side, the positive. He counts the flowers and forgets the thorns - not that there are no thorns, but he is not concerned with them. If you love the flowers and count the flowers, a moment comes when you cannot believe in the thorns, because how is it possible where so beautiful flowers exist, how can thorns exist? There must be something illusory.
The man of kutarka counts thorns; then flowers become illusory. The man of vitarka counts flowers; then thorns become illusory. That’s why Patanjali says vitarka is the first element; only then bliss is possible. Through vitarka one attains to heaven. One creates one’s own heaven all around.
Your standpoint counts. Whatsoever you find around you is your own creation - heaven or hell. And Patanjali says you can go beyond logic and reasoning only through the positive reasoning. Through the negative you can never go beyond because the more you say no, the more you find things to be sad, no, denied. Then, by and by, you become a constant no inside - a dark night, only thorns and no flowers can flower in you - a desert..