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Chapter 12: Of the Thousand and One Goals

Of the Thousand and One Goals
No people could live without evaluating; but if it wishes to maintain itself it must not evaluate as its neighbor evaluates.
Much that seemed good to one people seemed shame and disgrace to another: thus I found. I found much that was called evil in one place was in another decked with purple honors..
A table of values hangs over every people. Behold, it is the table of its overcomings; behold, it is the voice of its will to power.
What it accounts hard it calls praiseworthy; what it accounts indispensable and hard it calls good; and that which relieves the greatest need, the rare, the hardest of all - it glorifies as holy.
Whatever causes it to rule and conquer and glitter, to the dread and envy of its neighbor, that it accounts the sublimest, the paramount, the evaluation and the meaning of all things..
Man first implanted values into things to maintain himself - he created the meaning of things, a human meaning! Therefore he calls himself: “Man”, that is: the evaluator.
Evaluation is creation: hear it, you creative men! Valuating is itself the value and jewel of all valued things.
Only through evaluation is there value: and without evaluation the nut of existence would be hollow. Hear it, you creative men!
A change in values - that means a change in the creators of values. He who has to be a creator always has to destroy.
Peoples were the creators at first; only later were individuals creators. Indeed, the individual himself is still the latest creation..
It has always been creators and loving men who created good and evil. Fire of love and fire of anger glow in the names of all virtues.
Zarathustra has seen many lands and many peoples: Zarathustra has found no greater power on earth than the works of these loving men: these works are named `”good” and “evil.”
Truly, the power of this praising and blaming is a monster..
Hitherto there have been a thousand goals, for there have been a thousand peoples. Only fetters are still lacking for these thousand necks, the one goal is still lacking.
Yet tell me, my brothers: if a goal for humanity is still lacking, is there not still lacking - humanity itself?

.Thus spake Zarathustra.

The only difference between men and other animals is that of values. No animal lives according to values; he lives blindly, not knowing why. His life force is unconscious of itself. Many men also live in the same way. They only look like men, but they have not yet transcended the animal. The transcendence of the animal is indicated by the values. But values can be of two types: one that is imposed upon you from the outside, thou shalt; and one that arises in your own being, I will.

The first kind of value is just a hypocrisy. It is a strategy to make you believe that you have transcended the animals; but in fact you have even fallen below the animals. The animals are at least natural; you are not even natural. Your values distort your nature, distort your simplicity, distort your innocence - but they give you a false notion that you are a man.

The second kind of values are the authentic values. But for them, you have to avoid any kind of imposition from the outside, and you have to allow your own inner being and its still, small voice.

The beginning of man is in the trust that he shows in his own inner voice.

Zarathustra is talking about values in these statements:

No people could live without evaluating; but if it wishes to maintain itself it must not evaluate as its neighbor evaluates.

Everybody has to be himself, not a carbon copy of his neighbor - although the whole crowd in the world, because of its immense majority, destroys the individual and makes him just a carbon copy.

This whole thing goes on in the name of good intentions. Your parents, your priests, your leaders, your so-called saints are all doing one thing; they are not allowing you the freedom to be just yourself, and find your own values. They give you ready-made concepts - what is right, what is wrong, what is good, what is evil. They decide for you, and while you let them decide your life and your life’s values you are not yet a man. You are just a slave.

The greatest slavery is of the spirit.

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