In psychology, there is a movement called behaviorism, which thinks that man is nothing but the body. Always beware of people who talk of “nothing buts.” Man is always more than any “nothing but” can imply. Behaviorists Pavlov, B. F. Skinner and company think that man is the body – not that you have a body, not that you are in the body, but simply that you are the body. Then man is reduced to the lowest denominator. And of course, they can prove it. They can prove it because that is the grossest part of man and is easily available to scientific experimentation. The subtle layers of man’s being are not so easily available. Or, to say it in other words: scientific instrumentation is not yet so sophisticated. It cannot touch the subtler layers of man.
Freud, Adler go a little deeper into man. Then man is not just the body. They touch something of the second body, what Patanjali calls pranamay kosha: the vital body, the energy body. But only a very fragmentary part is touched upon by Freud and Adler; one part by Freud and another part by Adler.
Freud reduces man to just sexuality. That is also there in man, but that is not the whole story. Adler reduces man to just ambition, will to power. That too is there in man. Man is very big, very complex. Man is an orchestra; many instruments are involved in it.
But this has always happened. This is a calamity, but this has always happened: when once somebody finds something, he tries to make a total philosophy out of his finding. That’s a great temptation. Freud stumbled upon sex, and that too, not the whole of sex. He stumbled only upon repressed sexuality. He came across repressed people. Christian repression has made many blocks in man where energy has become coiled up within itself, has become stagnant, is no longer flowing. He came against those rock-like blocks in the stream of human energy, and he thought – and the ego always thinks that way – that he had found the ultimate truth. Adler, working in a different way, stumbled upon another block of man: the will to power. And then he made a whole philosophy out of it.
Man has been taken in fragments. Yoga is the only philosophy in existence which takes the whole of man into account. Jung went still a little further, deeper. One fragment of the third body of man, manomay kosha – he caught hold of it and created a whole philosophy out of it. To comprehend the whole body – that has not been possible because the body itself is very complex: millions of cells in a great harmony, functioning in a miraculous way. When you were born in your mother’s womb, you were just a small cell. Out of that one cell, another cell arises. The cell grows and divides in two, then the two cells grow and divide into four. Out of one division – and division goes on – you have millions of cells. And they all function in a deep cooperation, as if somebody is holding them. It is not a chaos; you are a cosmos.