When a watch is running, and if it is automatic, what makes it tick? Is there some immaterial entity like a soul? Open the watch and take the parts apart, and you will not find any soul. That’s what charvakas said five thousand years ago: that if there is a soul, then cut a man open and you should find it. Or when soldiers are cut open in the war – so many souls would be flying upwards. Or when ordinarily a death happens in your house naturally, the soul must leave the body.
Charvakas were very stubborn materialists. In five thousand years, materialism has not gone even a step further than charvakas. They weighed a dying person, and when he was dead they weighed him again and the weight was the same – it proves that nothing left the body. Then what was ticking in the body? It was something – a byproduct of the constituents of the body. And the materialists of all ages – Epicurus in Greece, Karl Marx and Engels in Germany and England – continued to repeat the same idea: that consciousness is a byproduct. And modern psychology has accepted it as their basic foundation: there is no soul in man; man is only a body.
Joseph Stalin was able to kill almost one million Russians after the revolution. Anybody who was unwilling to give up his rights to his property was killed mercilessly. The whole family of the czar which had ruled for hundreds of years – one of the oldest empires in the world, and one of the biggest – nineteen persons in that family were killed so mercilessly that they did not even leave a six-month-old baby, they killed that baby too. Killing was easy because of the philosophy, nothing is killed; it is almost like breaking a chair. Otherwise it would be difficult for any man to kill one million people and not feel any prick in his conscience. But the philosophy was supportive of all these murders – because nothing is murdered, only the physical body. There is no consciousness, which is separate from the body.
Modern psychology is still behaving stupidly because it is still clinging to the five thousand year-old primitive idea of charvaka, that consciousness is a byproduct. Hence, all that modern psychology can do is a mechanical job. Your car is broken down. You go to the workshop and a mechanic fixes it. The psychologist is a mechanic, no different from a plumber. He simply fixes nuts and bolts in your mind, which get loose once in a while; he tightens them here and there. Somewhere they are too tight, somewhere they are loose. But it is a question of nuts and bolts.
The question of enlightenment does not arise for the modern psychologist because enlightenment is based on the experience that mind is not your whole reality. Beyond mind there is your consciousness, and going beyond mind is what enlightenment is all about. The moment you cross the borders of the mind, there is enlightenment: a world of tremendous light, awareness, fulfillment, rejoicings.