Reform functions like a lubricant. It keeps the status quo going, it helps things remain the same – which will look paradoxical, because the reformist claims that he is changing society, but in fact all that he does is paint the old society in new colors. And the old society can exist more easily in new colors than it could have ever done with the old ones. The old were getting rotten. Reform is a kind of renovation. The house is falling; the supports are falling, the foundations are shaking, and you go on giving new props to it. And you can keep the house from falling a little longer. Reform is in the service of the status quo: it serves the past not the future.
The second thing is revolution; it goes a little deeper. Reform only changes ideas, it does not even change policies. Revolution goes and touches the structure, but only the outer not the inner.
Man has two structures, man lives on two planes. One is the physical, another is the spiritual. The revolution only goes to the physical structure – to the economic, to the political – they all belong to the physical. It goes deeper than reform, it destroys many old things, it creates many new things; but the being, the innermost being of man still remains unchanged. It creates morality, it creates character. Reform creates manner, etiquette, civilization: the formal behavior of the man is changed. Revolution changes man’s outer structure – really changes: it brings a new structure. but the inner blueprint remains the same, the inner consciousness is not touched. It creates a split.
The first, the reform, creates hypocrisy. The second, the revolution, creates schizophrenia, it makes man unbridgeable. Man starts falling into two beings. the bridge is broken. That’s why revolutionaries go on denying, the soul. Marx and Engels and Lenin and Stalin and Mao – they go on denying the soul. They have to deny it, they can’t accept it, because if they accept it. then their whole revolution seems to be very superficial, then their revolution is not total.
The reformist does not deny the soul, remember; he accepts it because it makes no problem for him – he never goes up to that point. That point is not a problem. Gandhi accepts the soul, Manu accepts the soul – they are reformists. They never say no to anything, they are people who go on saying yes; they are polite people. Unless it becomes absolutely necessary they will not deny anything, they will accept. But revolutionaries deny the soul. They have to deny, otherwise their revolution looks partial.
The third thing is rebellion. Rebellion is from the very essential core: it changes consciousness – it is radical; it transmutes – it is alchemical. It gives you a new being, not only a new body, not only new dresses, but a new being. A new man is born.
And in the history of consciousness there have been three types of thinkers: the reformer, the revolutionary and the rebel. Manu, Moses, Gandhi – these are reformers, the most superficial. John the Baptist, Marx, Freud – these are the revolutionaries. And Jesus, Buddha, Krishnamurti – these are the rebels.
To understand rebellion is to understand the heart of religion. Religion is rebellion. Religion is utter change. Religion is discontinuity with the past, the beginning of the new, the dropping of the old – the total. Nothing has to be continued, because if something continues it will keep the old alive.